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## Introduction

Hey it's a me again @drifter1! Today we continue with **Physics** and more specifically the branch "**Classical Mechanics**" to continue with the chapter of **Equilibrium and Elasticity**. In this article we will get into **Tensile Stress and Strain**. So, without further ado, let's dive straight into it!

## Tensile Stress

Tensile stress is defined as the resistance an object has to forces tending to break it. It is equal to the force per unit area that a material can endure without tearing apart. The maximum stress that the material can stand is called the ultimate tensile stress or breaking stress.Stress is defined by the following formula:

- σ = tensile stress measured in N/m
^{2}or pascals (Pa) - F = force in newtons (N)
- A = cross-sectional area in m
^{2}

- Elastic modulus
- Ultimate tensile stress (UTS)
- Modulus of resilience
- Fracture stress

## Tensile Strain

The ratio of extension to original length is called strain and has no units. Mathematically, we can write it as following:- ε = tensile strain with no units
- ΔL = extension measured in metres (m)
- L = original length measured in metres (m)

## Young's Modulus

Young's modulus of elasticity is defined as "*The mechanical property of a material to withstand the compression or elongation with respect to its length*". It is denoted as E or Y. Using Hooke's Law of elasticity, Young's modulus is defined as:

- σ = tensile stress
- ε = tensile strain
- F = tensile force
- A = cross-sectional area
- L
_{0}= original length - L
_{n}= new length

## Poisson's Ratio

Stretching a material in one diretion it tends to get thinner, whilst compressing it tends to make it thicker in the lateral direction. Poisson's ratio is expressed as:- μ = Poisson's ratio
- ε
_{t}= transverse strain - ε
_{l}= longitudinal or axial strain

- ε
_{t}= longitudinal or axial strain - ΔL = change in length
- L = initial length

- ε
_{l}= transverse, lateral or radial strain - Δr = change in radius
- r = initial radius

## RESOURCES:

### References

- https://www.corrosionpedia.com/definition/1073/tensile-stress
- http://physicsnet.co.uk/a-level-physics-as-a2/materials/stress-strain/
- https://byjus.com/physics/tensile-stress/
- https://byjus.com/physics/youngs-modulus-elastic-modulus/
- https://www.britannica.com/science/Youngs-modulus
- https://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/poissons-ratio-d_1224.html

### Images

Mathematical equations used in this article, where made using quicklatex.

## Previous articles of the series

### Rectlinear motion

- Velocity and acceleration in a rectlinear motion -> velocity, acceleration and averages of those
- Rectlinear motion with constant acceleration and free falling -> const acceleration motion and free fall
- Rectlinear motion with variable acceleration and velocity relativity -> integrations to calculate pos and velocity, relative velocity
- Rectlinear motion exercises -> examples and tasks in rectlinear motion

### Plane motion

- Position, velocity and acceleration vectors in a plane motion -> position, velocity and acceleration in plane motion
- Projectile motion as a plane motion -> missile/bullet motion as a plane motion
- Smooth Circular motion -> smooth circular motion theory
- Plane motion exercises -> examples and tasks in plane motions

### Newton's laws and Applications

- Force and Newton's first law -> force, 1st law
- Mass and Newton's second law -> mass, 2nd law
- Newton's 3rd law and mass vs weight -> mass vs weight, 3rd law, friction
- Applying Newton's Laws -> free-body diagram, point equilibrium and 2nd law applications
- Contact forces and friction -> contact force, friction
- Dynamics of Circular motion -> circular motion dynamics, applications
- Object equilibrium and 2nd law application examples -> examples of object equilibrium and 2nd law applications
- Contact force and friction examples -> exercises in force and friction
- Circular dynamic and vertical circle motion examples -> exercises in circular dynamics
- Advanced Newton law examples -> advanced (more difficult) exercises

### Work and Energy

- Work and Kinetic Energy -> Definition of Work, Work by a constant and variable Force, Work and Kinetic Energy, Power, Exercises
- Conservative and Non-Conservative Forces -> Conservation of Energy, Conservative and Non-Conservative Forces and Fields, Calculations and Exercises
- Potential and Mechanical Energy -> Gravitational and Elastic Potential Energy, Conservation of Mechanical Energy, Problem Solving Strategy & Tips
- Force and Potential Energy -> Force as Energy Derivative (1-dim) and Gradient (3-dim)
- Potential Energy Diagrams -> Energy Diagram Interpretation, Steps and Example
- Internal Energy and Work -> Internal Energy, Internal Work

### Momentum and Impulse

- Conservation of Momentum -> Momentum, Conservation of Momentum
- Elastic and Inelastic Collisions -> Collision, Elastic Collision, Inelastic Collision
- Collision Examples -> Various Elastic and Inelastic Collision Examples
- Impulse -> Impulse with Example
- Motion of the Center of Mass -> Center of Mass, Motion analysis with examples
- Explaining the Physics behind Rocket Propulsion -> Required Background, Rocket Propulsion Analysis

### Angular Motion

- Angular motion basics -> Angular position, velocity and acceleration
- Rotation with constant angular acceleration -> Constant angular acceleration, Example
- Rotational Kinetic Energy & Moment of Inertia -> Rotational kinetic energy, Moment of Inertia
- Parallel Axis Theorem -> Parallel axis theorem with example
- Torque and Angular Acceleration -> Torque, Relation to Angular Acceleration, Example
- Rotation about a moving axis (Rolling motion) -> Fixed and moving axis rotation
- Work and Power in Angular Motion -> Work, Work-Energy Theorem, Power
- Angular Momentum -> Angular Momentum and its conservation
- Explaining the Physics behind Mechanical Gyroscopes -> What they are, History, How they work (Precession, Mathematical Analysis) Difference to Accelerometers
- Exercises around Angular motion -> Angular motion examples

### Equilibrium and Elasticity

- Rigid Body Equilibrium -> Equilibrium Conditions of Rigid Bodies, Center of Gravity, Solving Equilibrium Problems
- Force Couple System -> Force Couple System, Example

## Final words | Next up

And this is actually it for today's post!Next time we will continue with Volumetric Tension and Strain...

See ya!

Keep on drifting!