A vaccine is a substance which when given to the human body will stimulate immunity against a specific disease. The concept of vaccination itself was first discovered by a British scientist, doctor Edward Jenner. In 1796 he did research to boost immunity. Along with the development of science and technology in medical and biological sciences, the immune system continues to be made in the form of vaccines, so that currently there are 30 types of vaccines in the world.
In normal circumstances, the body's natural immunity is formed c 800 until after being attacked by a disease, meaning that the body will form natural immunity but through vaccination the body will receive specific protection through stimulation of antibodies which have a memory to remember / record the type of disease so that it can protect it. the body in if the virus attacks the body at a later stage.
Indonesia is a country that has implemented mass vaccinations to prevent measles and polio, and this government program has succeeded in suppressing the spread of both viruses.
Composition of Vaccines
When the disease broke out, a lot of information was spread about the contents of the vaccines being produced so that many of them refused to be vaccinated, for example at this time during the outbreak of the Covid-19 virus, in developing countries like Indonesia had difficulty implementing vaccinations for its citizens, information on vaccine content was often considered contains harmful substances such as mercury, pork enzymes.
Scientifically proving that vaccines are processed from the DNA of viruses or bacteria that have been weakened and inserted into other cells so that they become active. This virus has a function to stimulate human antibodies to form immunity. Based on research, the combination of DNA and viruses is very effective in forming antibodies and preventing several infectious diseases.
In addition to the main ingredients of DNA and viruses, vaccines are also processed from other ingredients, for example adjuvants (auxiliary materials) and clean water or sodium chloride as well as stabilizers in the form of sugar (sucrose and lactose) or protein (albumin and gelatin), stabilizers are important because they have a neutralizing function. hot or cold conditions. To maintain the resistance of microorganisms in vaccines, preservatives in the form of Thimerosal and mercury are given which are safe for the body.
Types of Vaccines
Among the 30 types of vaccines that exist, I will describe several types of which are classified based on the type of antigen composition.
|a.||Oral Polio Vaccine||6 x (0, 2, 3, 4, 18 month old & 5 year|
|b.||Measles Rubella||2 x (15 month old & 5 year old|
|c.||RotaVirus||2 x (6-14, 16-25 weeks old)|
|d.||Yellow Fever||2x (9 Month old, the next 10 years L|
|a.||Whole Cell Pertussis||1 x|
|b.||Inactivated Polio Virus||4 x (2, 4, 6 through 18 months old, 4 through 6 years old.|
|a.||Accellular Pertussis||2, 4 and 6 months of age|
|b.||Haemophillus Influenzae B Type||6 months of age|
|c.||Pneumococcal||2 through 6 months olds|
|d.||Hepatitis B||4x (12 hours newborn baby, 2, 3 & 4 month olds|
|a.||Tetanus toxoid||3x (every 4 weeks thereafter)|
|b.||Toxoid Diphtheria||Children under 7 years of age|
How Vaccines Work
Vaccines that enter the body play a role in training the immune system to be able to recognize and store memories against types of diseases that infect the body, either viruses or bacteria (pathogens). As explained earlier, I have mentioned that DNA or cells from pathogens that have been attenuated will be a stimulator of the body's immunity.
Vaccines in the body will store in its memory if one day the virus comes and attacks again, besides that it has protective properties, attacks the incoming viruses / bacteria and produces antibodies so that it is free from disease attacks.